Mitochondria were discovered in cells in 1857. Relevant studies from 1920 to 1930 further proved that mitochondria have an important role in the supply of intracellular energy-Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and death/life regulator of apoptosis and necrosis. Furthermore, the pioneer of mitochondrial researcher won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1931 and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1997. Therefore, both mitochondria reconstruction therapy and stem cell therapy have become an important key in modern medical research in anti-aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and regenerative medicine. Mitochondrial reconstruction therapy is regarded as the next generation of new regenerative medicine technology. It is believed that the relevant clinical trials and applications will be more extensive in the future, and will lead the new trend of regenerative medicine.